When Britain was ‘England’
If the passion of David Cameron, the Saltire flying over Downing Street and the threatened departure from Scotland of major business houses do not between them dissuade Scots from their interesting proposal, what remains of the United Kingdom will require a new name. This would not have been a question a hundred years ago. Conservative politicians and journalists for sure, and many others, rarely if ever spoke of 'Britain' or 'Great Britain', still less of the 'United Kingdom' or 'UK'. It was invariably 'England'.
Look at the speeches of Lord Salisbury, Arthur Balfour or Joseph Chamberlain, or the writings of journalists like Leo Maxse and Charles Whibley. Scotland for them was an item, included but not counted, an unvoiced letter, like 'h' after 'w'. It was 'England' which, in the deluded person of Sir Edward Grey, keen fly-fisherman in Scottish streams, went in August 1914 to war.
A.V.Dicey, in his pamphlet predicting the fall of the country off a cliff edge if a scintilla of autonomy were trusted to Ireland by Gladstone's first Home Rule Bill of 1886, did not suggest a threat to the United Kingdom or Great Britain. It was a matter of 'our blind leaders, some of whom care more for radical supremacy in England than imperial supremacy in Ireland'.
George Saintsbury wrote of the United Kingdom, but only to point up the glory of an imperial England. For the Home Rulers of 1886, he said, 'the making of England is to be exchanged for the unmaking of England... They do not propose, no doubt, to disunite this United Kingdom, to alienate the English Empire out of pure wantonness. But...'
Randolph Churchill, contemplating the loss of Ireland in the Times in February 1886, wrote: 'I believe that there will be hundreds of thousands of English hearts – aye – and English hands – who when the moment comes and the Protestants of Ireland are called upon... willing to give, in the most pratical and convincing form, a demonstration and proof of their loyalty to the English throne.'
A hundred and thirty years is a long time. Humbled as we are likely to be, we must scratch around for a name if Scotland votes for the exit. With Northern Ireland and Wales not yet dispersed, what might it be? Lesser Britain? The Residual Territories? Or perhaps, in order to accommodate the Edinburgh financiers fleeing south, not to mention their all-powerful counterparts in the City of London, we will have to settle for something with a brusque, commercial ring, such as 'England Associates'.