Close

Terms and Conditions

These terms and conditions of use refer to the London Review of Books and the London Review Bookshop website (www.lrb.co.uk — hereafter ‘LRB Website’). These terms and conditions apply to all users of the LRB Website ("you"), including individual subscribers to the print edition of the LRB who wish to take advantage of our free 'subscriber only' access to archived material ("individual users") and users who are authorised to access the LRB Website by subscribing institutions ("institutional users").

Each time you use the LRB Website you signify your acceptance of these terms and conditions. If you do not agree, or are not comfortable with any part of this document, your only remedy is not to use the LRB Website.


  1. By registering for access to the LRB Website and/or entering the LRB Website by whatever route of access, you agree to be bound by the terms and conditions currently prevailing.
  2. The London Review of Books ("LRB") reserves the right to change these terms and conditions at any time and you should check for any alterations regularly. Continued usage of the LRB Website subsequent to a change in the terms and conditions constitutes acceptance of the current terms and conditions.
  3. The terms and conditions of any subscription agreements which educational and other institutions have entered into with the LRB apply in addition to these terms and conditions.
  4. You undertake to indemnify the LRB fully for all losses damages and costs incurred as a result of your breaching these terms and conditions.
  5. The information you supply on registration to the LRB Website shall be accurate and complete. You will notify the LRB promptly of any changes of relevant details by emailing the registrar. You will not assist a non-registered person to gain access to the LRB Website by supplying them with your password. In the event that the LRB considers that you have breached the requirements governing registration, that you are in breach of these terms and conditions or that your or your institution's subscription to the LRB lapses, your registration to the LRB Website will be terminated.
  6. Each individual subscriber to the LRB (whether a person or organisation) is entitled to the registration of one person to use the 'subscriber only' content on the web site. This user is an 'individual user'.
  7. The London Review of Books operates a ‘no questions asked’ cancellation policy in accordance with UK legislation. Please contact us to cancel your subscription and receive a full refund for the cost of all unposted issues.
  8. Use of the 'subscriber only' content on the LRB Website is strictly for the personal use of each individual user who may read the content on the screen, download, store or print single copies for their own personal private non-commercial use only, and is not to be made available to or used by any other person for any purpose.
  9. Each institution which subscribes to the LRB is entitled to grant access to persons to register on and use the 'subscriber only' content on the web site under the terms and conditions of its subscription agreement with the LRB. These users are 'institutional users'.
  10. Each institutional user of the LRB may access and search the LRB database and view its entire contents, and may also reproduce insubstantial extracts from individual articles or other works in the database to which their institution's subscription provides access, including in academic assignments and theses, online and/or in print. All quotations must be credited to the author and the LRB. Institutional users are not permitted to reproduce any entire article or other work, or to make any commercial use of any LRB material (including sale, licensing or publication) without the LRB's prior written permission. Institutions may notify institutional users of any additional or different conditions of use which they have agreed with the LRB.
  11. Users may use any one computer to access the LRB web site 'subscriber only' content at any time, so long as that connection does not allow any other computer, networked or otherwise connected, to access 'subscriber only' content.
  12. The LRB Website and its contents are protected by copyright and other intellectual property rights. You acknowledge that all intellectual property rights including copyright in the LRB Website and its contents belong to or have been licensed to the LRB or are otherwise used by the LRB as permitted by applicable law.
  13. All intellectual property rights in articles, reviews and essays originally published in the print edition of the LRB and subsequently included on the LRB Website belong to or have been licensed to the LRB. This material is made available to you for use as set out in paragraph 8 (if you are an individual user) or paragraph 10 (if you are an institutional user) only. Save for such permitted use, you may not download, store, disseminate, republish, post, reproduce, translate or adapt such material in whole or in part in any form without the prior written permission of the LRB. To obtain such permission and the terms and conditions applying, contact the Rights and Permissions department.
  14. All intellectual property rights in images on the LRB Website are owned by the LRB except where another copyright holder is specifically attributed or credited. Save for such material taken for permitted use set out above, you may not download, store, disseminate, republish, post, reproduce, translate or adapt LRB’s images in whole or in part in any form without the prior written permission of the LRB. To obtain such permission and the terms and conditions applying, contact the Rights and Permissions department. Where another copyright holder is specifically attributed or credited you may not download, store, disseminate, republish, reproduce or translate such images in whole or in part in any form without the prior written permission of the copyright holder. The LRB will not undertake to supply contact details of any attributed or credited copyright holder.
  15. The LRB Website is provided on an 'as is' basis and the LRB gives no warranty that the LRB Website will be accessible by any particular browser, operating system or device.
  16. The LRB makes no express or implied representation and gives no warranty of any kind in relation to any content available on the LRB Website including as to the accuracy or reliability of any information either in its articles, essays and reviews or in the letters printed in its letter page or material supplied by third parties. The LRB excludes to the fullest extent permitted by law all liability of any kind (including liability for any losses, damages or costs) arising from the publication of any materials on the LRB Website or incurred as a consequence of using or relying on such materials.
  17. The LRB excludes to the fullest extent permitted by law all liability of any kind (including liability for any losses, damages or costs) for any legal or other consequences (including infringement of third party rights) of any links made to the LRB Website.
  18. The LRB is not responsible for the content of any material you encounter after leaving the LRB Website site via a link in it or otherwise. The LRB gives no warranty as to the accuracy or reliability of any such material and to the fullest extent permitted by law excludes all liability that may arise in respect of or as a consequence of using or relying on such material.
  19. This site may be used only for lawful purposes and in a manner which does not infringe the rights of, or restrict the use and enjoyment of the site by, any third party. In the event of a chat room, message board, forum and/or news group being set up on the LRB Website, the LRB will not undertake to monitor any material supplied and will give no warranty as to its accuracy, reliability, originality or decency. By posting any material you agree that you are solely responsible for ensuring that it is accurate and not obscene, defamatory, plagiarised or in breach of copyright, confidentiality or any other right of any person, and you undertake to indemnify the LRB against all claims, losses, damages and costs incurred in consequence of your posting of such material. The LRB will reserve the right to remove any such material posted at any time and without notice or explanation. The LRB will reserve the right to disclose the provenance of such material, republish it in any form it deems fit or edit or censor it. The LRB will reserve the right to terminate the registration of any person it considers to abuse access to any chat room, message board, forum or news group provided by the LRB.
  20. Any e-mail services supplied via the LRB Website are subject to these terms and conditions.
  21. You will not knowingly transmit any virus, malware, trojan or other harmful matter to the LRB Website. The LRB gives no warranty that the LRB Website is free from contaminating matter, viruses or other malicious software and to the fullest extent permitted by law disclaims all liability of any kind including liability for any damages, losses or costs resulting from damage to your computer or other property arising from access to the LRB Website, use of it or downloading material from it.
  22. The LRB does not warrant that the use of the LRB Website will be uninterrupted, and disclaims all liability to the fullest extent permitted by law for any damages, losses or costs incurred as a result of access to the LRB Website being interrupted, modified or discontinued.
  23. The LRB Website contains advertisements and promotional links to websites and other resources operated by third parties. While we would never knowingly link to a site which we believed to be trading in bad faith, the LRB makes no express or implied representations or warranties of any kind in respect of any third party websites or resources or their contents, and we take no responsibility for the content, privacy practices, goods or services offered by these websites and resources. The LRB excludes to the fullest extent permitted by law all liability for any damages or losses arising from access to such websites and resources. Any transaction effected with such a third party contacted via the LRB Website are subject to the terms and conditions imposed by the third party involved and the LRB accepts no responsibility or liability resulting from such transactions.
  24. The LRB disclaims liability to the fullest extent permitted by law for any damages, losses or costs incurred for unauthorised access or alterations of transmissions or data by third parties as consequence of visit to the LRB Website.
  25. While 'subscriber only' content on the LRB Website is currently provided free to subscribers to the print edition of the LRB, the LRB reserves the right to impose a charge for access to some or all areas of the LRB Website without notice.
  26. These terms and conditions are governed by and will be interpreted in accordance with English law and any disputes relating to these terms and conditions will be subject to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of the courts of England and Wales.
  27. The various provisions of these terms and conditions are severable and if any provision is held to be invalid or unenforceable by any court of competent jurisdiction then such invalidity or unenforceability shall not affect the remaining provisions.
  28. If these terms and conditions are not accepted in full, use of the LRB Website must be terminated immediately.
Close

Letters

Vol. 26 No. 18 · 23 September 2004

Search by issue:

Not Iran, Not North Korea, Not Libya

It’s doubtless true that, as Norman Dombey suggests, the Bush administration would prefer states such as Iran, Libya and North Korea to be denied the ability to build nuclear weapons (LRB, 2 September). But Dombey also convincingly shows how very far most of those states are from having that ability: even if they have made some progress, none would be able to build enough weapons to constitute a significant military threat. Perhaps we should credit Bush and his negotiators – who bullied the International Atomic Energy Authority into putting a halt to Iran’s indisputably legitimate non-weapons uranium enrichment programmes – with the same knowledge. They do, after all, employ advisers with a fair smattering of nuclear physics. The American diplomatic histrionics over the nuclear threat from ‘axis of evil’ states must therefore have other motives. First among these are financial. Dombey rightly says that uranium enrichment programmes worldwide have generally been initiated in order to avoid having ‘to rely on the United States for fuel, since the US Congress could (and would) impose new conditions on delivery’. The flip-side of this is that US companies which produce and sell enriched uranium are determined to ensure that there are places where they can still sell it. I say US ‘companies’, but in fact there is only one: based in Bethesda, Maryland, it’s called the US Enrichment Corporation, and was born six years ago as a privatised spin-off from the Department of Energy. USEC has a history of influencing government policy: it nearly scuppered the agreement brokered by Clinton whereby Russian nuclear warheads are reprocessed in return for cash (it didn’t want to pay the going rate), and successfully lobbied the Department of Commerce to impose tariffs on imports from its European competitor Urenco. it’s a nice irony that the enrichment facilities Iran was developing were based on advanced centrifuge technology rather than the old-fashioned gaseous diffusion process USEC employs. An American company mustn’t be outdone.

Jim Harper
Waverly, Ohio

Hamlet goes through his paces

Barbara Everett suggests that the key word in ‘To be or not to be’ is ‘nobler’ (LRB, 2 September). Earlier she drew attention to Hamlet’s status as a student, and I think that is relevant here, too. University students were accustomed to debate ‘questions’ as exercises in rhetoric and logic, and a case can be made that this speech is a performance, in the style of a student, perhaps put on for the benefit of Claudius and Polonius. The speech would not, then, be performed introspectively, but with relish at its formal but improvised cleverness, a presentation designed to demonstrate persuasiveness and logic and leading to a conclusion: ‘Enterprises of great pitch and moment … turn awry.’ He could thereby signal to the hidden listeners that he has no immediate plan against the king, perhaps to lull them into a false sense of security.

The conclusion ‘Soft you now,/The fair Ophelia’ has never struck me as being easily spoken to himself alone. A nod in the direction of the listeners – you knew she was here all along and so did I – would be a more interesting way of rounding it off than the usual sort of ‘well well, what have we here?’

Julian Rathbone
Thorney Hill, Dorset

The Truth about Kerry

A few correctives to Andrew O’Hagan’s report on the nomination of John Kerry (LRB, 19 August). First, there is no evidence of John Kerry ‘turning against the war’ in Iraq. In recent weeks he has asserted that knowing what he knows now he would still vote as he did for the invasion, and he continues vociferously to support the occupation. In Boston he was ‘reporting for duty’ as a superior manager of the situation that he, John Edwards and the rest of the all too loyal opposition in Congress created with George Bush. It would have been worth noting that 95 per cent of the delegates at the Boston convention were opposed to the war (a position that a majority of Americans now hold) but not one whisper of dissent could be heard above the roars of approval for the two hawks who head the Democratic ticket.

Second, Howard Dean’s problem was not that ‘he found himself coming over a bit crazed on television’ but that there was a systematic and well-funded effort to destroy his candidacy in order to silence the tens of thousands of people who had been energised by his outspoken opposition to the war, and to thwart the formation of an electoral alliance between them and independent voters (who now make up 35 per cent of Americans). In the 6 March edition of Counterpunch.org, Charles Lewis reported that a group of Democrats calling themselves Americans for Jobs and Healthcare had raised $1 million between November 2003 and March 2004 to run incendiary ads attacking Dean, then the front-runner in the Democratic primaries. The money came from supporters of Kerry and the other big-name Democratic candidates who had been eclipsed by Dean; the group went out of existence shortly after Super Tuesday (when a batch of influential primaries took place) and the Dean candidacy was effectively laid to rest. In a memo circulated in early March to activists in Choosing an Independent President (ChIP), Jacqueline Salit – who was in contact with the Dean campaign in the months leading up to the primary season – wrote: ‘Kerry’s nomination gives the party a stability that a Dean nomination would have threatened. The party opted to destroy Dean and his singular ability to forge a winning coalition with independent voters. Why? The party puts its self-perpetuation above all else – including beating Bush.’

Third, should he be elected, John Kerry will be perfectly ‘able to unsay’ his rhetoric of making America ‘a freer, fairer and more likeable place’. Indeed, the Democratic Party is already engaging in a historically unprecedented attack on the democratic process by seeking to keep Ralph Nader – the only anti-war candidate in the race – off the ballot in as many states as possible, including those where the results are a foregone conclusion.

Phyllis Goldberg
New York

What is ‘die Massen’?

The focus of Freud’s Massenpsychologie und Ich-Analyse is not, as Jeremy Whitehurst implies (Letters, 19 August), McDougall’s The Group Mind (1920), which deals with stable associations (such as church and army), but Le Bon’s Psychologie des foules (1895), which deals with transient ones (crowds). Therefore to render Freud’s title as Crowd Psychology and the Individual is both to ‘situate’ the critique and to signal his overriding concern with what happens to individuals when they are addressed en masse – i.e. in a crowd – by a hypnotic leader.

Christopher Wintle
King’s College London

Do you do Atkins?

Steven Shapin’s discussion of the forces underpinning the low-carb craze (LRB, 5 August) brings to mind a much earlier synthesis of personal struggle and social critique based on diet. George Cheyne’s The English Malady, published in 1733, invokes Protestant conduct manuals and spiritual autobiographies, while lamenting the effects of colonial expansion on the urban bourgeoisie:

Since our Wealth has increas’d, we have ransack’d all the parts of the Globe to bring together its whole Stock of Materials for Riot, Luxury, and to provoke Excess … Is it any Wonder, then, that the Diseases which proceed from Idleness and Fulness of Bread, should increase in Proportion, and keep equal Pace with those Improvements of the Matter and Cause of Disease?

Writing at a time when Parliament was debating whether to tax ‘foreign luxuries’, Cheyne proposed a home-grown austerity which came with a price tag to fit the affluence of those he criticised. His promotion of ‘regimen’ at Bath and London made him a very wealthy man. While Dr Atkins may not have shared Cheyne’s taste for brown bread and milk, he would have looked favourably on his methods.

Nick Sweeney
Asheville, North Carolina

Blue Periods

I know poems are not arguments, but John Burnside’s poem (LRB, 2 September) in homage to Greta Garbo was lovely enough to count as a good argument. The speaker wakes up to find swallows etching his walls with shadow, and captures a big thing or two about solitariness, if that’s not too juicy a word for loneliness. Garbo, of course, very much wanted to be alone, but there are some quite specific things to be said about her walls too, the ones of the Sutton Place apartment she occupied for years in New York. In one of his ditties, Truman Capote swears (I know, I know, but when it comes to good stories I think it’s a case of any port in a storm) that Garbo’s walls were hung with Picassos. ‘The only problem was,’ he said, ‘they were upside down.’ When pressed, Capote recalled they were pictures from the funny period, two faces and so on, a detail which suits Capote rather well when you think of it. Anyhow, he was backed up. A few other people have sworn that Garbo’s Picassos were upside down. This adds nothing at all to Burnside’s poem, but it might occasionally help him (and the rest of us) out of our blue period.

Hamilton Scott
Bournemouth

It’s not my fault

In his piece on Orhan Pamuk, Christopher Tayler says that I have ‘a wayward sense of register’, that my ‘English sentences are often hard to decode’, and that my ‘translations read very awkwardly in a way that all the other translations of Pamuk do not’ (LRB, 5 August). In 1998, Professor Talat Halman said of my translation of The New Life: ‘Güneli Gün … has done an impressively successful translation, faithful and idiomatic. Some critics have characterised the translation as stilted at times, but this is hardly Gün’s fault. Pamuk … occasionally writes some awkward sentences. If anything, the translation has managed to expurgate many of the careless clauses.’ Pamuk, who keeps a sharp eye on his critics, has been modifying and simplifying his language in his last two books, My Name Is Red and, more recently, Snow. But vintage Pamuk can be hard to read. Other translators of his work have phoned me, thanking me for unpacking some of his more enigmatic sentences. Yet I was unwilling to disrupt his prose, because every linguistic puzzle he presented seemed worth solving.

Güneli Gün
Oberlin, Ohio

Locating Nivisons

Elizabeth Thompson Colleary's response to my review of Edward Hopper at the Tate misrepresents the facts (Letters, 2 September). All of Josephine Nivison's canvases, which she bequeathed to the Whitney in 1968, were discarded – either put in the trash or given to local hospitals with no strings attached. They were not loaned, as Colleary claims, and none can be traced at any of the hospitals today. The works bequeathed by Nivison now at the Whitney survived only because they were accidentally identified as by her husband, or overlooked and therefore not discarded, and almost all of these are on paper. I am not aware that the Whitney has accessioned for its permanent collection any work by Nivison, although a recent bequest by her friend, the artist Felicia Meyer Marsh, includes some of Nivison's small oil paintings.

Gail Levin
City University of New York

Beyond Middle Earth

Jenny Diski's diary may have left some readers with misunderstandings about New Zealand (LRB, 5 August). This is a secular country with a population of over four million (not 3.5 million, as Diski has it), the large majority of whom did not appear in Lord of the Rings, were not inconvenienced by the film and have never plummeted from a great height attached to a rubber line. A number of us were, however, captivated by Diski's performance at the New Zealand International Arts Festival held earlier this year.

Joe Baker
Dunedin

Read anywhere with the London Review of Books app, available now from the App Store for Apple devices, Google Play for Android devices and Amazon for your Kindle Fire.

Sign up to our newsletter

For highlights from the latest issue, our archive and the blog, as well as news, events and exclusive promotions.