Close

Terms and Conditions

These terms and conditions of use refer to the London Review of Books and the London Review Bookshop website (www.lrb.co.uk — hereafter ‘LRB Website’). These terms and conditions apply to all users of the LRB Website ("you"), including individual subscribers to the print edition of the LRB who wish to take advantage of our free 'subscriber only' access to archived material ("individual users") and users who are authorised to access the LRB Website by subscribing institutions ("institutional users").

Each time you use the LRB Website you signify your acceptance of these terms and conditions. If you do not agree, or are not comfortable with any part of this document, your only remedy is not to use the LRB Website.


  1. By registering for access to the LRB Website and/or entering the LRB Website by whatever route of access, you agree to be bound by the terms and conditions currently prevailing.
  2. The London Review of Books ("LRB") reserves the right to change these terms and conditions at any time and you should check for any alterations regularly. Continued usage of the LRB Website subsequent to a change in the terms and conditions constitutes acceptance of the current terms and conditions.
  3. The terms and conditions of any subscription agreements which educational and other institutions have entered into with the LRB apply in addition to these terms and conditions.
  4. You undertake to indemnify the LRB fully for all losses damages and costs incurred as a result of your breaching these terms and conditions.
  5. The information you supply on registration to the LRB Website shall be accurate and complete. You will notify the LRB promptly of any changes of relevant details by emailing the registrar. You will not assist a non-registered person to gain access to the LRB Website by supplying them with your password. In the event that the LRB considers that you have breached the requirements governing registration, that you are in breach of these terms and conditions or that your or your institution's subscription to the LRB lapses, your registration to the LRB Website will be terminated.
  6. Each individual subscriber to the LRB (whether a person or organisation) is entitled to the registration of one person to use the 'subscriber only' content on the web site. This user is an 'individual user'.
  7. The London Review of Books operates a ‘no questions asked’ cancellation policy in accordance with UK legislation. Please contact us to cancel your subscription and receive a full refund for the cost of all unposted issues.
  8. Use of the 'subscriber only' content on the LRB Website is strictly for the personal use of each individual user who may read the content on the screen, download, store or print single copies for their own personal private non-commercial use only, and is not to be made available to or used by any other person for any purpose.
  9. Each institution which subscribes to the LRB is entitled to grant access to persons to register on and use the 'subscriber only' content on the web site under the terms and conditions of its subscription agreement with the LRB. These users are 'institutional users'.
  10. Each institutional user of the LRB may access and search the LRB database and view its entire contents, and may also reproduce insubstantial extracts from individual articles or other works in the database to which their institution's subscription provides access, including in academic assignments and theses, online and/or in print. All quotations must be credited to the author and the LRB. Institutional users are not permitted to reproduce any entire article or other work, or to make any commercial use of any LRB material (including sale, licensing or publication) without the LRB's prior written permission. Institutions may notify institutional users of any additional or different conditions of use which they have agreed with the LRB.
  11. Users may use any one computer to access the LRB web site 'subscriber only' content at any time, so long as that connection does not allow any other computer, networked or otherwise connected, to access 'subscriber only' content.
  12. The LRB Website and its contents are protected by copyright and other intellectual property rights. You acknowledge that all intellectual property rights including copyright in the LRB Website and its contents belong to or have been licensed to the LRB or are otherwise used by the LRB as permitted by applicable law.
  13. All intellectual property rights in articles, reviews and essays originally published in the print edition of the LRB and subsequently included on the LRB Website belong to or have been licensed to the LRB. This material is made available to you for use as set out in paragraph 8 (if you are an individual user) or paragraph 10 (if you are an institutional user) only. Save for such permitted use, you may not download, store, disseminate, republish, post, reproduce, translate or adapt such material in whole or in part in any form without the prior written permission of the LRB. To obtain such permission and the terms and conditions applying, contact the Rights and Permissions department.
  14. All intellectual property rights in images on the LRB Website are owned by the LRB except where another copyright holder is specifically attributed or credited. Save for such material taken for permitted use set out above, you may not download, store, disseminate, republish, post, reproduce, translate or adapt LRB’s images in whole or in part in any form without the prior written permission of the LRB. To obtain such permission and the terms and conditions applying, contact the Rights and Permissions department. Where another copyright holder is specifically attributed or credited you may not download, store, disseminate, republish, reproduce or translate such images in whole or in part in any form without the prior written permission of the copyright holder. The LRB will not undertake to supply contact details of any attributed or credited copyright holder.
  15. The LRB Website is provided on an 'as is' basis and the LRB gives no warranty that the LRB Website will be accessible by any particular browser, operating system or device.
  16. The LRB makes no express or implied representation and gives no warranty of any kind in relation to any content available on the LRB Website including as to the accuracy or reliability of any information either in its articles, essays and reviews or in the letters printed in its letter page or material supplied by third parties. The LRB excludes to the fullest extent permitted by law all liability of any kind (including liability for any losses, damages or costs) arising from the publication of any materials on the LRB Website or incurred as a consequence of using or relying on such materials.
  17. The LRB excludes to the fullest extent permitted by law all liability of any kind (including liability for any losses, damages or costs) for any legal or other consequences (including infringement of third party rights) of any links made to the LRB Website.
  18. The LRB is not responsible for the content of any material you encounter after leaving the LRB Website site via a link in it or otherwise. The LRB gives no warranty as to the accuracy or reliability of any such material and to the fullest extent permitted by law excludes all liability that may arise in respect of or as a consequence of using or relying on such material.
  19. This site may be used only for lawful purposes and in a manner which does not infringe the rights of, or restrict the use and enjoyment of the site by, any third party. In the event of a chat room, message board, forum and/or news group being set up on the LRB Website, the LRB will not undertake to monitor any material supplied and will give no warranty as to its accuracy, reliability, originality or decency. By posting any material you agree that you are solely responsible for ensuring that it is accurate and not obscene, defamatory, plagiarised or in breach of copyright, confidentiality or any other right of any person, and you undertake to indemnify the LRB against all claims, losses, damages and costs incurred in consequence of your posting of such material. The LRB will reserve the right to remove any such material posted at any time and without notice or explanation. The LRB will reserve the right to disclose the provenance of such material, republish it in any form it deems fit or edit or censor it. The LRB will reserve the right to terminate the registration of any person it considers to abuse access to any chat room, message board, forum or news group provided by the LRB.
  20. Any e-mail services supplied via the LRB Website are subject to these terms and conditions.
  21. You will not knowingly transmit any virus, malware, trojan or other harmful matter to the LRB Website. The LRB gives no warranty that the LRB Website is free from contaminating matter, viruses or other malicious software and to the fullest extent permitted by law disclaims all liability of any kind including liability for any damages, losses or costs resulting from damage to your computer or other property arising from access to the LRB Website, use of it or downloading material from it.
  22. The LRB does not warrant that the use of the LRB Website will be uninterrupted, and disclaims all liability to the fullest extent permitted by law for any damages, losses or costs incurred as a result of access to the LRB Website being interrupted, modified or discontinued.
  23. The LRB Website contains advertisements and promotional links to websites and other resources operated by third parties. While we would never knowingly link to a site which we believed to be trading in bad faith, the LRB makes no express or implied representations or warranties of any kind in respect of any third party websites or resources or their contents, and we take no responsibility for the content, privacy practices, goods or services offered by these websites and resources. The LRB excludes to the fullest extent permitted by law all liability for any damages or losses arising from access to such websites and resources. Any transaction effected with such a third party contacted via the LRB Website are subject to the terms and conditions imposed by the third party involved and the LRB accepts no responsibility or liability resulting from such transactions.
  24. The LRB disclaims liability to the fullest extent permitted by law for any damages, losses or costs incurred for unauthorised access or alterations of transmissions or data by third parties as consequence of visit to the LRB Website.
  25. While 'subscriber only' content on the LRB Website is currently provided free to subscribers to the print edition of the LRB, the LRB reserves the right to impose a charge for access to some or all areas of the LRB Website without notice.
  26. These terms and conditions are governed by and will be interpreted in accordance with English law and any disputes relating to these terms and conditions will be subject to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of the courts of England and Wales.
  27. The various provisions of these terms and conditions are severable and if any provision is held to be invalid or unenforceable by any court of competent jurisdiction then such invalidity or unenforceability shall not affect the remaining provisions.
  28. If these terms and conditions are not accepted in full, use of the LRB Website must be terminated immediately.
Close

Letters

Vol. 25 No. 15 · 7 August 2003

Search by issue:

Armageddon Now

John Sutherland (LRB, 5 June) had me wondering how many generations have now lived through ‘the end times’? My friend John (he died in his twenties in 1975) spent a week, as an eight-year-old, in the woods near his home in British Columbia, believing he had been ‘left behind’. He’d come home from school to find his minister father, his mother, his siblings, all the Christian neighbours and members of the congregation he’d tried to contact, missing – ‘Raptured’, he thought.

I passed many long Sunday morning sermons – the evening ones were fire and brimstone and worth staying alert for – reading the Christian romance novels written in the 1930s and 1940s by Grace Livingstone Hill, and available from the Sunday School library. It was considered one of her ‘failings’, I was delighted recently to learn, that she described evil in too much detail. I remember a scene in which a young woman was tortured by the Antichrist or one of his minions by being tied to a stake on the Temple Mount, covered in honey, then set upon by ants. She kept true to her faith, however, and although she died, was ‘saved’.

I could never keep straight the prophetic meanings found in the Books of Daniel and Revelation. The Eagle had to be the United States and the Bear the Russians. But what did they do, and when? It was worrying. It made a kind of sense when evangelists warned that the Common Market was the first step towards World Government and domination by the Antichrist. In Canada, the introduction of social insurance numbers in the 1960s, and later of bar codes on merchandise, were seen by my parents’ church as crucial steps towards the universal stamp of 666. Nowadays, politicians appear to see themselves as instruments of biblical prophecy. This doesn’t seem to me much different from the woman who’s told by the palm reader that her future includes a tall dark stranger, and then goes out to find one.

Marilyn Bowering
Sooke, British Colombia

Different Class

As a footballer in the 1930s and 1940s, R.W. Johnson’s father (LRB, 24 July) would certainly have known the Liverpool legend Billy Liddell, who refused to turn professional and played simply because he enjoyed the game. As Johnson says, footballers then received very low wages, and clubs such as Liverpool fostered the ethic of ‘wearing your shirt with pride’ – there was little else to persuade players to put their shirts on. Liddell earned most of his money – and spent most of his time – working as an accountant, training only as often as his job allowed. As late as 1971 Ian St John earned £40 a week, about the same as Ford workers on Merseyside. Only in 1998, when Roy Evans was replaced as manager by Gérard Houllier, was the cap removed from Liverpool players’ wages. When Harry Kewell signed for Liverpool this summer he claimed that it was the realisation of a childhood dream rather than the promise of being joint top earner at Anfield (£60,000 a week) that encouraged him to join the club. Money now prevails in the Premiership and it’s little wonder that many workers on Merseyside who once enjoyed parity of income with the players they supported, can no longer afford to go to games.

David Rose
Liverpool

R.W. Johnson names Everton and Liverpool along with Celtic and Rangers as teams whose support divides along religious lines. The first football club in Liverpool was Everton, which was founded in 1878 and had its ground at Anfield. Liverpool FC was founded in 1892 after an Everton boardroom row involving John Houlding, who owned Anfield. After that, Everton was forced to find a new ground. The emergence of the two Liverpool clubs had little to do with religious sectarianism, but had its origin in a quarrel about money and property. Today, Liverpool families commonly split along football lines. They should not be seen in the same sectarian league as followers of the Old Firm.

Brian Towers
Nottingham

Showing Off

In his review of Richard Lindley’s book on Panorama, Andy Beckett (LRB, 10 July) mentioned Lindley’s and my coverage of the Yom Kippur War. I’m not sure what Beckett meant by referring to our ‘showing off’, but let me now do so! We didn’t just beat ‘the rest of the BBC’ into Egyptian-held territory in Sinai, we beat the rest of the world. We also got an exclusive with President Sadat. In those pre-satellite days, Sadat’s aides then helped us get our footage back to London. I was rushed to the airport by two senior Egyptian Army officers and ushered on board an EgyptAir Boeing. With me as the only passenger, the jet headed down over Africa – to avoid interception by Israeli fighters – and then across to Jeddah. From there I was able to ship the film to London for transmission before the temporary Egyptian victory turned into a rout.

Anthony Summers
Co. Waterford, Ireland

Dip in

Those interested in the ‘initiative’ type of referendum mentioned by David Runciman (LRB, 10 July) might like to dip into the Swiss Constitution, which, in Articles 138 to 142, sets out the uses of the initiative (changes in the Constitution requested by 100,000 citizens) and the referendum proper, the latter coming in two versions: compulsory (changes in the Constitution and laws that have to be put to the vote) and facultative (when a vote on new laws or treaties is requested at the federal level by 50,000 citizens or eight cantons). These tools are open to abuse, by powerful interest groups for instance, but citizens called to the ballot box several times a year are not so easily duped. It is true that low turn-outs are worrying: not so long ago there were plebiscites in parts of Europe with participation/approval rates of 99.9 per cent. But does the right of vote not also include the right to abstain?

Wilhelm Schmid
The Hague

David Runciman wonders what to make of Giscard’s prefacing of the draft European Constitution with a well-known line attributed to Pericles from Thucydides’ History of the Peloponnesian War. Since this is the story of democracy subverted by demagogues, chancers and mediocrities on the make, any reference to it in the European context is happily apt.

Michael McManus
Leeds Metropolitan University

David Runciman mentions that Paul Scofield played the writer Carl van Doren in the film Quiz Show. In fact, Scofield played Carl's brother, the poet and critic Mark van Doren, a professor of English at Columbia and the father of Charles, the quiz contestant who was inveigled into cheating. After the scandal Charles van Doren went to work for the Encyclopaedia Britannica.

Jill Kitson
Melbourne

Stopping Motion

Anne Hollander (LRB, 24 July) is remarkably generous to Rebecca Solnit’s Motion Studies: Time, Space and Eadweard Muybridge, despite Solnit’s unfounded suggestion that Muybridge should be considered as the ‘father’ of motion pictures.

Muybridge was not the first to produce sequences of projected images. In 1864 Louis Ducos du Hauron, who is also credited with the first effective colour photographic system, patented a camera which used up to 580 lenses to capture motion. In 1870, two years before Muybridge took his famous stop-motion shots of a trotting horse, 1600 people in Philadelphia bought tickets for a lantern show on a February Saturday. They saw the Phasmatrope projecting moving photographic images of an acrobat and of a couple waltzing to the accompaniment of a live orchestra.

On another February Saturday, this time in 1888, Muybridge projected stop-motion photographs and brief moving sequences of drawings (not photographs) in his Zoopraxiscope to an audience in Orange, New Jersey, where Thomas Edison lived. On the Monday he visited ‘the Wizard’ and suggested that Edison’s new phonograph could be combined with the Zoopraxiscope. Edison didn’t follow this up, but he did add the capture of photographic motion to the subjects to be researched by his lab. His interest had probably already been roused by a recent meeting with Muybridge’s French opposite number, Etienne de Marey; and he must have known about Eastman’s celluloid film, which had been widely advertised from 1885.

There are errors, too, in the story of subsequent events as recounted by Solnit. For example, the famous Lumière screening in 1895 was not the first paid-for public show that year but the fourth. Unimportant in themselves, such mistakes mask her more important error of crediting the cinema to ‘eureka’ advances by solitary great men. Like all such ‘inventions’ it owes far more to social forces than that. Attempting to position Muybridge as a significant player in the history of cinema goes against the grain of his most famous work in any case. Like Marey, but unlike du Hauron and those who followed him, Muybridge was essentially aiming to stop motion, not to re-create it.

Brian Winston
University of Lincoln

Aids and the Polio Vaccine

Just as Stanley Plotkin’s latest letter was being published in the LRB (Letters, 10 July), I received a communication from him – a postcard with the caption ‘Punishment of the Apple Stealers’. The photo showed one figure cracking another over the head with a club, and the message read: ‘Dear Ed, Thinking of you. Stanley Plotkin.’ There were, however, no answers to the key questions that have been put to him over the last nine years.

Plotkin’s undocumented assertion that the titre of the oral polio vaccine (OPV) fed early in 1958 to 215,000 people in the Ruzizi Valley (between present-day Burundi and the Democratic Republic of Congo) was measured at the Wistar Institute in Philadelphia, and that the vaccine was then diluted 60-fold by Ghislain Courtois in Africa, contradicts the medical literature. Dr Courtois wrote that it was the specifically the ‘mother-solution’ of the vaccine that was stored in the freezer at Bujumbura that had a known titre (of about 15 million doses per millilitre), and that this vaccine was then diluted 60-fold to reach the accepted immunising titre of 250,000 doses. Virologists in the 1950s were well aware that OPV rapidly loses titre during transportation and when its temperature rises. So if Plotkin is correct when he says that the titration was done in Philadelphia, this would mean that the vaccine fed in Africa was of unknown titre.

Studies conducted in the 1950s by the National Institutes of Health revealed that the titre of OPVs fell between two-fold and eight-fold when moved between different labs in the United States, and an even greater loss of titre would be expected during the process of transporting OPV in an ice-box to Africa. After the further 60-fold dilution, such an under-strength vaccine would (according to the Wistar’s own test data) have immunised only between 33 and 67 per cent of the target population, which would have rendered the world’s first OPV mass-trial meaningless. If it did come from Philadelphia, why was the vaccine not titrated again in Africa, to allow its concentration to be properly established?

Edward Hooper
Bridgwater, Somerset

Wrong Platform

John Lanchester says in his Diary (LRB, 10 July) that Tony Blair ‘bounded out towards Euston and the train north for his constituency’. He would have found his train more easily if he had gone to King’s Cross, which is where trains for the North-East of England normally depart.

Martin Staniforth
Leeds

Wrong Name

The Syrian Intelligence chief I referred to in my piece in the last issue (LRB, 24 July) was Bahjat Suleiman, rather than Majid Suleiman, as I had it.

Charles Glass
Paris

Read anywhere with the London Review of Books app, available now from the App Store for Apple devices, Google Play for Android devices and Amazon for your Kindle Fire.

Sign up to our newsletter

For highlights from the latest issue, our archive and the blog, as well as news, events and exclusive promotions.