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Was she Julia?

Stephen Spender, 7 July 1983

Code Name ‘Mary’: Memoirs of an American Woman in the Austrian Underground 
by Muriel Gardiner.
Yale, 200 pp., £10.95, May 1983, 0 300 02940 3
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... to this day one of my closest friends. I have written about this in World within World, where Muriel is called ‘Elizabeth’. Many people think that Muriel Gardiner is the model for Julia in the story bearing that name by Lillian Hellman, published in Hellman’s second volume of ...

Last Word

Michael Ignatieff, 3 February 1983

The Wolf-Man: Sixty Years Later 
by Karin Obholzer, translated by Michael Shaw.
Routledge, 250 pp., £12.50, November 1982, 0 7100 9354 3
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Ernest Jones: Freud’s Alter Ego 
by Vincent Brome.
Caliban, 250 pp., £12.50, January 1983, 0 904573 57 5
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... receiving small retainers from Freud, and then from the Freud Society. An American analyst, Muriel Gardiner, befriended him in 1938, and with great devotion and persistence, managed to persuade him to write his memoirs. When these appeared in 1971, they contained a dutiful acknowledgment of the debt he owed to the Master and to the psychoanalytic ...

I am a cactus

John Sutherland: Christopher Isherwood and his boys, 3 June 2004

by Peter Parker.
Picador, 914 pp., £25, May 2004, 0 330 48699 3
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... longer, in every respect, Christopher’s. For Spender, the initiation into heterosexual sex with Muriel Gardiner in Vienna in 1934 led the way to two marriages, and a family. For Isherwood, the bisexual man could never be honest. It was against his nature(s). ‘Although he would always regard Spender as one of his closest friends,’ Parker ...

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