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22 April 1993
A Complicated War: The Harrowing of Mozambique 
by William Finnegan.
California, 344 pp., £25, April 1992, 0 520 07804 7
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Conspicuous Destruction: War, Famine and the Reform Process in Mozambique 
by Karl Maier, Kemal Mustafa and Alex Vines.
Africa Watch, 202 pp., £8.99, July 1992, 1 56432 079 0
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African Laughter: Four Visits to Zimbabwe 
by Doris Lessing.
HarperCollins, 442 pp., £16.99, October 1992, 0 00 255019 9
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... for the Independent and other papers during the late Eighties and left before the peace was signed in October 1992. He researched Conspicuous Destruction with the help of two other journalists, KemalMustafa and Alex Vines. It is a formal catalogue of human and political rights abuses by both sides in the war – a ‘civil war’ no less – with a condensed introduction to the history of ...


David McDowall: In Diyarbakir

20 February 1997
... nascent Turkish national movement to defeat the Christian threat: in the west the Greeks, in the east the Armenians, and in the south the victorious Allies, France and Britain. They had responded to MustafaKemal’s appeal, addressed to ‘fine people, with honour and respect, Turks and Kurds ... brothers around the institution of the Caliphate’. No sooner had the war been won, however, than the ...

Legitimate Violence

James Sheehan: After the Armistice

5 July 2018
The Vanquished: Why the First World War Failed to End, 1917-23 
by Robert Gerwarth.
Allen Lane, 446 pp., £10.99, June 2017, 978 0 14 197637 2
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... from the wreckage of the Ottoman Empire when its reconstituted armed forces routed the Greek invaders and compelled the Allies to revise the peace treaty they had imposed on the sultan in 1919. As MustafaKemal told the Turkish National Assembly in 1921: ‘Neither sovereignty nor the right to govern can be transferred by one person to anybody else by an academic debate. Sovereignty is acquired by ...


Suzy Hansen: In Istanbul

6 May 2015
... and sweaters, a troupe of Greek acrobats … In 1928, however, city planners cleaned up part of the square and created a bronze and marble monument to the republic’s founders … One side showed MustafaKemal, Ismet Pasha, and other makers of the new country in astrakhan hats and the military garb of the War of Independence. The other side portrayed them as modern statesman in Western-style suits ...

The G-Word

Mark Mazower: The Armenian Massacres

8 February 2001
The Treatment of Armenians in the Ottoman Empire, 1915-16: Documents Presented to Viscount Grey of Falloden by Viscount Bryce Uncensored Edition 
by James Bryce and Arnold Toynbee, edited by Ara Sarafian.
Gomidas Institute, 677 pp., £32, December 2000, 0 9535191 5 5
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... Committee itself was an unstable amalgam of many factions which feuded incessantly; its members were activists, many were military men or rough types who had resorted more than once to assassination. MustafaKemal, the future architect of the Turkish Republic, was a member, though not a leading one. As in all combatant states, the war had militarised every aspect of government, and power lay chiefly in ...

Who was the enemy?

Bernard Porter: Gallipoli

20 May 2015
by Alan Moorehead.
Aurum, 384 pp., £25, April 2015, 978 1 78131 406 7
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Gallipoli: A Soldier’s Story 
by Arthur Beecroft.
Robert Hale, 176 pp., £12.99, March 2015, 978 0 7198 1654 3
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Gallipoli 1915 
by Joseph Murray.
Silvertail, 210 pp., £12.99, April 2015, 978 1 909269 11 8
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Gallipoli: The Dardanelles Disaster in Soldiers’ Words and Photographs 
by Richard van Emden and Stephen Chambers.
Bloomsbury, 344 pp., £25, March 2015, 978 1 4088 5615 4
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... and encouraged by the Europeans’ mistakes. ‘These British are either really stupid or unprepared,’ a Turkish lieutenant wrote, on finding a unit laying out breakfast in open view of his troops. MustafaKemal (later Kemal Atatürk, founder of the first Turkish Republic) distinguished himself in the campaign. His famous command, ‘I don’t order you to attack. I order you to die,’ is supposed to ...


Mark Mazower: Greece and Turkey’s Population Exchange

3 August 2006
Twice a Stranger: How Mass Expulsion Forged Modern Greece and Turkey 
by Bruce Clark.
Granta, 274 pp., £20, March 2006, 1 86207 752 5
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... demanding for decades. Having acquired Crete, Samos, Epiros and Macedonia, and with Istanbul under Allied military occupation, the momentum seemed to be with them. But Turkish nationalists, led by MustafaKemal, rallied in central Anatolia, forced the Greeks onto the back foot just outside Ankara and gradually pushed them out of the country. In 1922, as hundreds of thousands of Orthodox Christians ...
24 May 2018
... The founding of the republic in 1923 was a largely authoritarian affair, even if the declaration of popular sovereignty represented a break with the imperial past. Tightly controlled elections gave MustafaKemal the presidency of what by 1925 had become a one-party state. From that office, Kemal – who was given the surname Atatürk, or ‘father of the Turks’, by the Turkish parliament in 1934 – ...

Sins of the Three Pashas

Edward Luttwak: The Armenian Genocide

3 June 2015
‘They Can Live in the Desert but Nowhere Else’: A History of the Armenian Genocide 
by Ronald Grigor Suny.
Princeton, 520 pp., £24.95, March 2015, 978 0 691 14730 7
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... of any new church (Armenian or otherwise), synagogue or non-Muslim school since the foundation of the Turkish Republic in 1923. Today’s Islamist rulers are doing everything possible to obliterate MustafaKemal’s firmly secular Turkey – they are building mosques in universities where even headscarves were disallowed until very recently, and the official centennial documentary of his victorious ...

In the Streets of Londonistan

John Upton: Terror, Muslims and the Met

22 January 2004
... he says. For an instant, I wonder whether he’s decided that now is the time to reassert his authority. ‘It’s just that the road’s open and I wouldn’t want you to get knocked over.’ MustafaKemal, the one-eyed former nightclub bouncer, now known as Abu Hamza, looks at him with a smile on his face. I look above the sheikh, to the flats opposite the mosque, up to the name-plate above the ...

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