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One Eye on the Neighbours

Jeremy Harding, 22 April 1993

A Complicated War: The Harrowing of Mozambique 
by William Finnegan.
California, 344 pp., £25, April 1992, 0 520 07804 7
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Conspicuous Destruction: War, Famine and the Reform Process in Mozambique 
by Karl Maier, Kemal Mustafa and Alex Vines.
Africa Watch, 202 pp., £8.99, July 1992, 1 56432 079 0
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African Laughter: Four Visits to Zimbabwe 
by Doris Lessing.
HarperCollins, 442 pp., £16.99, October 1992, 0 00 255019 9
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... in October 1992. He researched Conspicuous Destruction with the help of two other journalists, Kemal Mustafa and Alex Vines. It is a formal catalogue of human and political rights abuses by both sides in the war – a ‘civil war’ no less – with a condensed introduction to the history of Mozambique and a wealth of interviews with Mozambicans who ...


David McDowall: In Diyarbakir, 20 February 1997

... the Armenians, and in the south the victorious Allies, France and Britain. They had responded to Mustafa Kemal’s appeal, addressed to ‘fine people, with honour and respect, Turks and Kurds ... brothers around the institution of the Caliphate’. No sooner had the war been won, however, than the basis of Muslim fraternity was removed – the ...

Legitimate Violence

James Sheehan: After the Armistice, 5 July 2018

The Vanquished: Why the First World War Failed to End, 1917-23 
by Robert Gerwarth.
Allen Lane, 446 pp., £10.99, June 2017, 978 0 14 197637 2
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... and compelled the Allies to revise the peace treaty they had imposed on the sultan in 1919. As Mustafa Kemal told the Turkish National Assembly in 1921: ‘Neither sovereignty nor the right to govern can be transferred by one person to anybody else by an academic debate. Sovereignty is acquired by force, by power and by violence.’ During the ...

The G-Word

Mark Mazower: The Armenian Massacres, 8 February 2001

The Treatment of Armenians in the Ottoman Empire, 1915-16: Documents Presented to Viscount Grey of Falloden by Viscount Bryce Uncensored Edition 
by James Bryce and Arnold Toynbee, edited by Ara Sarafian.
Gomidas Institute, 677 pp., £32, December 2000, 0 9535191 5 5
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... activists, many were military men or rough types who had resorted more than once to assassination. Mustafa Kemal, the future architect of the Turkish Republic, was a member, though not a leading one. As in all combatant states, the war had militarised every aspect of government, and power lay chiefly in the hands of hardline nationalists. Working through ...


Suzy Hansen: In Istanbul, 7 May 2015

... square and created a bronze and marble monument to the republic’s founders … One side showed Mustafa Kemal, Ismet Pasha, and other makers of the new country in astrakhan hats and the military garb of the War of Independence. The other side portrayed them as modern statesman in Western-style suits and ties. The Kemalists, the secular nationalists who ...


Mark Mazower: Greece and Turkey’s Population Exchange, 3 August 2006

Twice a Stranger: How Mass Expulsion Forged Modern Greece and Turkey 
by Bruce Clark.
Granta, 274 pp., £20, March 2006, 1 86207 752 5
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... Allied military occupation, the momentum seemed to be with them. But Turkish nationalists, led by Mustafa Kemal, rallied in central Anatolia, forced the Greeks onto the back foot just outside Ankara and gradually pushed them out of the country. In 1922, as hundreds of thousands of Orthodox Christians fled the Kemalist forces, Smyrna went up in flames and ...

Who was the enemy?

Bernard Porter: Gallipoli, 21 May 2015

by Alan Moorehead.
Aurum, 384 pp., £25, April 2015, 978 1 78131 406 7
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Gallipoli: A Soldier’s Story 
by Arthur Beecroft.
Robert Hale, 176 pp., £12.99, March 2015, 978 0 7198 1654 3
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Gallipoli 1915 
by Joseph Murray.
Silvertail, 210 pp., £12.99, April 2015, 978 1 909269 11 8
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Gallipoli: The Dardanelles Disaster in Soldiers’ Words and Photographs 
by Richard van Emden and Stephen Chambers.
Bloomsbury, 344 pp., £25, March 2015, 978 1 4088 5615 4
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... a Turkish lieutenant wrote, on finding a unit laying out breakfast in open view of his troops. Mustafa Kemal (later Kemal Atatürk, founder of the first Turkish Republic) distinguished himself in the campaign. His famous command, ‘I don’t order you to attack. I order you to die,’ is supposed to have been ...

Purges and Paranoia

Ella George, 24 May 2018

... popular sovereignty represented a break with the imperial past. Tightly controlled elections gave Mustafa Kemal the presidency of what by 1925 had become a one-party state. From that office, Kemal – who was given the surname Atatürk, or ‘father of the Turks’, by the Turkish parliament in 1934 – presided over a ...

Sins of the Three Pashas

Edward Luttwak: The Armenian Genocide, 4 June 2015

‘They Can Live in the Desert but Nowhere Else’: A History of the Armenian Genocide 
by Ronald Grigor Suny.
Princeton, 520 pp., £24.95, March 2015, 978 0 691 14730 7
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... Turkish Republic in 1923. Today’s Islamist rulers are doing everything possible to obliterate Mustafa Kemal’s firmly secular Turkey – they are building mosques in universities where even headscarves were disallowed until very recently, and the official centennial documentary of his victorious Gallipoli campaign featured a fervently praying ...

In the Streets of Londonistan

John Upton: Terror, Muslims and the Met, 22 January 2004

... authority. ‘It’s just that the road’s open and I wouldn’t want you to get knocked over.’ Mustafa Kemal, the one-eyed former nightclub bouncer, now known as Abu Hamza, looks at him with a smile on his face. I look above the sheikh, to the flats opposite the mosque, up to the name-plate above the entrance: Vaudeville Court. ‘O ‘Our view is ...

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