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Stephen Kotkin

Stephen Kotkin, who directs the Russian studies programme at Princeton, is the author of Armageddon Averted: The Soviet Collapse, 1970-2000.

Chechnya

Stephen Kotkin, 18 October 2001

Afghanistan emerged as an independent kingdom in the 18th century, though its frontiers would change many times and it would always be more a confederation of tribes and lesser khanates than a centralised state. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, determined to halt Russia’s Inner Asian advance and ‘secure’ its own North Indian frontier, Britain fought three wars with the...

Second-Guessing Stalin

Sheila Fitzpatrick, 5 April 2018

Stephen Kotkin​’s Stalin is all paradox. He is pockmarked and physically unimpressive, yet charismatic; a gambler, but cautious; undeterred by the prospect of mass bloodshed, but with no...

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Gorbachev Betrayed

Neal Ascherson, 7 January 2010

The 20th anniversary of the Fall of the Wall was merrier than the tenth. In 1999, Berlin was in the middle of a hangover. The European Union was plagued by doubts about its future course; the...

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